Gallbladder Problems | Gallbladder Pain

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Gall Bladder Surgery Complications

Gall Bladder Surgery Complications
Gall Bladder Surgery Complications

Gallbladder with a capacity of 30-50 ml and 7-10 cm long is a pear-shaped pouch. Gallbladder adheres to the front and bottom of the liver. It is also the junction of the right and left lobes of the liver. Gallbladder’s back is attached to the liver.

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Small pebble-like formations developing in the gallbladder are called as Gallstones. Gallstones are formed by stone-like hardening of bile components in the gallbladder.

The function of bile in the body is to help fat digestion.

The primary organ responsible for bile’s production is the liver. The gallbladder is the organ where bile is stored.

After meals, the gallbladder contracts and transmits the stored bile to another channel called the main bile duct. The bile plays a role in digestion, reaching the small intestine through the main bile duct.

There are two types of gallstones. These are called as cholesterol stones and pigment stones. Being yellow and green, Cholesterol stones occur as a result of hardening of cholesterol. Cholesterol stones constitute 80% of all gallbladder stones.

On the other hand, the small black stones which are more dense than bilirubin are called as pigment stones.

Gallstones can be millimetric as well as they can reach 4-5 cm in size.

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Causes of gallstone formation

Causes of gallstone formation

There are some factors that are effective in the development of gallbladder stones. These are;

Gender: Gallstone is two times more common in women than in men.

Increased estrogen hormone during pregnancy and hormone replacement therapy increase cholesterol in bile and reduce gallbladder movements. These are among the causes of gallstone formation.

Family history: The presence of gallstones in one family member increases the probability of stone formation in other family members. (This suggests a genetic link.)

Weight: It is a major risk factor for the development of gallstones in women. As is known, increased

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cholesterol reduces the emptying of the gallbladder and prepares the ground for stone formation.

Nutrition: A high-fat diet and a low-fiber diet increase the amount of cholesterol in the gallbladder and reduce the emptying of the gallbladder.

Therefore, it increases the risk of gallstone development.

Age: As age increases, the amount of cholesterol in the bile increases. Therefore, the development of gallstones in people over the age of 60 is more than in young people.

Cholesterol Medications: Drugs that lower cholesterol levels in the blood actually increase the amount of cholesterol secreted into the bile. Therefore, the risk of gallstones is increased.

Diabetes: People with diabetes often have high levels of fatty acids, called triglycerides. These fatty acids can increase the risk of gallstones.

What are the symptoms of gallbladder stone?

What are the symptoms of gallbladder stone?

As gallstones block the gallbladder duct, the pressure in the gallbladder increases. This causes inflammation of the gallbladder. This condition, called acute cholecystitis, often occurs following fatty foods.

When inflammation of the gallbladder occurs;

When inflammation of the gallbladder occurs;
  • A severe pain occurs in the right upper quadrant of the abdomen. This pain spreads to the back and shoulders
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Fever (even at low levels)
  • Yellowish color on the white part of the eyes and skin
  • Mud colored stool

Some people with gallstones may be asymptomatic. These gallstones are called as “silent gallstones”. These patients may also have these complaints:

  • Stomachache
  • Gas pains
  • Indigestion
  • Bloating
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How to diagnose gallstones

How to diagnose gallstones

Gallstones are often detected in routine tests by chance.

The following tests and procedures can be used to diagnose gallstones:

  • Ultrasonography
  • Computed tomography (CT) scan
  • Cholescintigraphy (HIDA scan)
  • ERCP
  • Blood tests: Blood tests may show signs of infection, obstruction, pancreatitis or jaundice.

Treatment of gallstones;

Treatment of gallstones;

Which patients with gallstones should be operated?

  • Elderly and people with diabetes;
  • Those who will not be able to access health care for a long time;
  • Porcelain gallbladder; (These patients have an increased risk of developing gallbladder cancer.)
  • People with gallstones greater than 3 cm or less than 0.5 cm (Especially small stones can fall into the bile duct and cause jaundice or acute pancreatitis.)
  • People with acute cholecystitis
  • People with gallbladder perforation
  • People with obstructive jaundice

Treatment of gallstones;

Treatment of gallstones;

Cholecystectomy: It is the process of removal of the gallbladder. Cholecystectomy is performed as laparoscopic (closed surgery) and open surgery. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is performed with 3 or 4 incisions of 0.5 and 1 cm in the anterior abdominal wall. (This method is the gold standard.)

Gallstone solubilizing drugs: Oral medications may help dissolve gallstones. However, the treatment may take months or years to dissolve the gallstones in this way, and if the treatment is interrupted, the gallstones will probably re-form.

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