Complications Of Gallbladder Surgery
What Is Laparoscopic Surgery?
This is the process of making the surgery through small holes, without making large incisions on the skin of the abdomen. They are popularly known as bloodless surgeries.
What Is Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy?
Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is the removal of the gallbladder. The procedure is done through several small holes instead of a single large incision. It is commonly referred to as bloodless gallbladder surgery. A laparoscope is a thin, long tube with a camera on the tip. With the camera, the surgeon performs the operation by watching the gallbladder on a TV screen. The gallbladder is taken out of the abdomen through a small hole.
- The pear-shaped organ in the lower right part of the liver is the gallbladder.
- Its main task is to collect and concentrate bile, a digestive fluid produced by the liver. Bile, after eating, is secreted from the gallbladder to help digestion. The bile runs through narrow tube-shaped channels (bile ducts) to the small intestine.
- The removal of the gallbladder does not lead to a digestive disorder in many people.
What causes gallbladder problems?
- The cause of gallbladder problems is usually the presence of gallstones: gallstones are small and hard masses of bile salts and cholesterol formed in the gallbladder or bile duct.
- It is not known why gallstones occur in some people.
- There is no known method of preventing gallstones.
- These stones can interfere with the flow of bile out of the gallbladder so that the gallbladder swells, abdominal pain, vomiting, indigestion and occasionally fever can be seen.
- If the gallbladder blocks the main bile duct, jaundice may occur.
How are these problems raise and are treated?
- Ultrasound is often used to find gallstones.
- In some more complex cases, other x-ray tests can be used to evaluate gallbladder disease.
- Gallstones do not disappear by themselves. Some can be temporarily eliminated with drugs or by applying a diet that will reduce their fat intake. The success rate of this treatment is low and provides a short-term success.
- Surgical removal of the gallbladder is the safest and most timely way to treat gallbladder disease.
What are the advantages of undergoing the laparoscopic surgery?
- Instead of an incision of ten to fifteen centimeters, only four small openings are created in the abdomen in this surgery.
- Pain is usually minimal after surgery.
- Compared to patients undergoing open gallbladder surgery, patients recover more quickly after this surgery.
- Most patients are discharged within a day and can return to normal activities more quickly.
Is surgery to remove the gallbladder laparoscopically appropriate for you?
- The possible preparations to be made before laparoscopy surgery are listed below, but since each patient and doctor has their own condition, different tables may appear:
- Preoperative preparation requires blood values, medical evaluation, chest X-ray and EKG, depending on age and medical condition.
- The surgeon evaluates the potential risks and benefits with you, and then you must give your written consent for the surgery.
- After midnight before surgery, you should not eat or drink anything. You can only take the drugs that the surgeon says you can take with a little water on the morning of the surgery.
- Aspirin, blood thinners, anti-inflammatory drugs (arthritis drugs) should be temporarily discontinued a few days or a week before surgery.
- Diet drugs should not be taken for two weeks before surgery.
- Quit smoking and make the arrangements you need at home to help you.
How is surgery performed to remove the gallbladder laparoscopically?
- General anesthesia is applied and the patient remains asleep throughout the operation.
- Using a cannula (narrow, tube-shaped instrument), the surgeon enters the abdomen from the belly button area.
- A laparoscope (a small telescope) attached to a special camera is inserted through the cannula so that the surgeon can see the patient’s internal organs enlarged from the television screen.
- Other cannulas are inserted into the body so that the surgeon can carefully separate the gallbladder from the surrounding tissues and remove it using one of the openings.
- Many surgeons use cholangiography to determine the location or structures of stones that can be found in the bile ducts.
- One or more stones in the common bile duct are found, them can be removed with a special endoscope the surgeon, minimally invasive surgery may opt to have a second later, or can convert to open surgery to remove all the tiles then.
- After removal of the gallbladder, small incisions are closed with one or two stitches or bands.
What happens if the surgery cannot be performed laparoscopically or is not completed?
Laparoscopic methods cannot be applied to very few patients. Factors that increase the likelihood of having an “open” procedure or turning to this method include obesity, a history of previous abdominal surgery that causes severe scar tissue, inability to see organs, or bleeding during surgery.
The decision to perform open surgery is made by the surgeon prior to or during the surgery. If the surgeon thinks it is safer to move from laparoscopic procedure to open surgery, this is considered a logical decision, not a complication. The decision to undergo open surgery is strictly for the safety of the patient.
What to expect after gallbladder surgery?
- Gallbladder removal is a serious abdominal surgery and a certain level of pain will be seen after. Nausea and vomiting are common conditions.
- When fluids or a diet are tolerated, the patient is discharged on the day of laparoscopic gallbladder surgery or the next day.
- Activities depend on how the patient feels. The patient is asked to walk. The day after surgery, patients can take off their clothes and take a shower.
- They can start various normal activities such as driving, climbing stairs, lifting weights or working within a week.
- Recovery is usually progressive when the patient returns home.
- Fever, yellow skin or eyes, worsening abdominal pain, swelling, persistent nausea, vomiting, or discharge from the incision may be a sign of a complication. In such cases, you should contact your doctor.
- Most patients who have had a laparoscopic gallbladder operation are discharged the day after surgery. Some are even sent home on the day of surgery.
- Most patients can return to work within seven days after laparoscopic surgery depending on their work. Patients who do administrative or desk work can return to their jobs within a few days, while those who work in jobs that require manual power or heavy lifting can return to their jobs in longer periods of time.
- It takes four to six weeks for open surgery patients to return to normal activities.
- Make an appointment with your surgeon two weeks after surgery.
What kind of complications can be seen?
- Each surgery has various risks, but the majority of laparoscopic gallbladder patients have little or no complications, and many have returned to normal activities quickly. Be sure to ask your doctor about his or her training and experience before any laparoscopic or open surgery.
- Laparoscopic cholecystectomy complications are not common, but these complications include bleeding, infection, pneumonia, blood clots or heart problems. The main bile duct or adjacent structures, such as the small intestine, may suffer unwanted damage and a separate operation may be required to remedy this condition. It is rare for bile to leak as a result of unintended damage from the bile ducts leading from the liver to the intestine.
- According to the results of many studies, the complication rate for laparoscopic gallbladder surgery is much lower than the complication rate for open gallbladder surgery when performed by a trained surgeon.
When should you call your doctor?
- continuous fever above 39 degrees
- increased abdominal swelling
- a pain that your medication can’t reduce
- persistent nausea and vomiting
- shivering / chills
- persistent cough or shortness of breath
- gleet from any incision
- increased or growing redness around the incision
- inability to eat anything liquid or solid